1. Translational medical research...
translates findings between scientific disciplines
helps international research collaborations
facilitates findings between preclinical and clinical research
examines the transcendence of the mind
investigates transduction pathways

2. What are the three broad avenues for translational research?
(1) diagnosis/assessment (2) treatment/prevention (3) etiology/pathophysiology
(1) drug discovery (2) diagnosis (3) optimization
(1) etiology/pathophysiology (2) diagnosis (3) drug discovery
(1) optimization (2) intervention (3) maintenance
(1) diagnosis (2) assessment (3) etiology

3. Lecturers at medical universities often point out that current diagnostic systems...
Have to few diagnostic categories
Are immune to treatment with tin-foil hats.
Makes the clinician lazy
Can lead medical students to neglect important clinical symptoms and instead teaches stereotypical thinking to the student
Generates large sums of money which directly goes into the hands of the Big Pharma companies that holds the patent on the drug

4. A psychiatrist and a psychologist can be distinguished by:
The psychologist has no medical training
The psychiatrist has no training in psychology
The psychiatrist is the only one who by law can determine diagnosis
The psychiatrist is the only one who by law can prescribe drugs.
Only psychologist can do further training into psychotherapy

5. The DSM is used as the main diagnostic manual in the USA, in Europe another system is used, which one?
ICD: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems
ICD: International Classification de Diagnostique
CD-S: Becton & Dickinson Diagnostic System
MADRS: Montgomery-├ůsberg depression scale
GAF: Global Assessment of Functioning

6. David Rosenhan's pseudo patient experiment demonstrated that
The number of false positives were high
The number of true positives were high
The number of true positives were low
The number of true negatives were high
The number of true negative were low

7. The follow-up experiment Rosenhan did as a reaction to a challenge by a leading medical university demonstrated that the diagnostic practices at the time:
were biased
were fair
had low sensitivity
unbiased
accurate but in frequent

8. Taken together the two experiments show that psychiatric diagnosis at the time of DSM-II had:
both low specificity and sensitivity
only low sensitivity
only low specificity
low reliability
to many categories

9. According to Fleiss and Spitzer the main goal of a diagnostic system is:
find the appropriate intervention
make health insurance claims easier
to facilitate communication between and within health care professionals and patients about clinical features, etiology, course of illness and treatment
provide a detail examination of the cognitive faculties of the patient
determine if an individual is sick or healthy

10. Spitzer and Fleiss demonstrated scientifically that diagnostic assessment was:
reliable
invalid
unreliable
time consuming
ethical

11. Which one is not a major problem for scientific research with the current DSM version?




Reliability between the assessment of different clinicians is low.

12. Homosexuality (or ego-dystonic homosexuality as the DSM-II called it) was removed as a diagnosis in:
1948
1974
1939
1983
1965

13. Validity of a measurement is
the extent of how well-founded and accurately a measurement corresponds to a real world phenomenon
whether or not scientists draw valid conclusions form the emasurement
carefully standardized
is normalized against a clinical population
has been used clincally for at least 20 years

14. Reliability of a measurement is
the overall consistency of a measure
the degree to which one can use the test several times
how good the test measures in different population
how heterogenous responses the test produces
the extent of how well-founded and accurately a measurement corresponds to a real world phenomenon

15. What are the "three Ds" of mental illness? distress, deviant and dysfunctional
dreadful, dystonic, DREADD
distress, deviant and dysfunctional
deviant, deceitful, dissapointing
draconian, deceitful, deviant
dysfunctional, draconian, dysmorphic

16. Endophenotypes are:
Subset of mechanisms or behavioral functions which have a clearer genetic connection than broad psychiatric symptoms
Phenotypes that
Psychiatric phenotypes that exists only in a small ethnic and genetic homogenous population
Target of minimally invasive gene therapy
Phenotypes of a particular psychiatric condition

17. Comorbidity is:
When two dead bodies are found to be linked
The presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder
A state of anhedonia
When there are multiple causes of death
Suicide due to mental illness

18. Which is not a rating scale for symptom severity?
Y-BOCS
MADRAS
HDRS
OCD
LSAS

19. Etiology is:
The scientific study of animal behavior
The set of causes of a disease or medical condition
The branch of medicine that deals with classification
Disordered physiological process associated with a disorder or disease
Plant physiology

20. Pathophysiology is:
The branch of medicine that deals with classification
The scientific study of animal behavior
The set of causes of a disease or medical condition
Disordered physiological process associated with a disorder or disease
Plant physiology

21. What is the difference between treatment and prevention?
The first follows the other
The second follows the other
None, they are interchangable
Prevention are any intervention given before symptoms have properly evolved, whereas treatment is given to treat a set of symptoms
Treatment is only given within the health care system

22. Why is the prospect of prevention especially important for age-related disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease or Parkinson's Disease?
Because it could post-pone disease onset so that the individual dies of non-pathophysiological factors such as old age
Because the elderly population is increasing
Because young people are never sick
Because of the poly-pharmacy among the elderly
Because these disorders cost alot for society

23. Studies on treatment optimization revealed that
Antipsychotics such as haloperidol were given at too large doses
Much more haloperidol needs to be subscribed
Haloperidol is an efficient drug
Haloperidol is non-efficient
Haloperidol causes side-effects

24. Which of the following is not a cognitive process
Memory
Attention
Sensation
Perception
Judgement

25. What is a cognitive bias?
a characteristic way to process certain kind of information over another type of information
when anxiety interfere with thinking
problems of emotional regulation
tendency to search for, interpret and remember information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions
a tendency to think rather than feel

26. Memory is:
The same thing as learning
The retention of knowledge acquired
Information saved in the brain
A part of perception
Synaptic plasticity

27. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is recognized by:
a marked reduced selective attention, relative to other cognitive domains
hyperactivity in behavioral expression
social dysfunction
reduced ability to remember events
selective impairment in auditory attention only

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